Durham: An historical theme park in waiting?

Durham, the county in the North East of England where I grew up, is barely recognisable these days. Gone are the pits and the slag heaps and the steel works to be replaced with fecund sweeps of arable crops, fluffy, white sheep and trees – lots and lots of trees.

Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral

But even though most of the ugly scars that pitted the landscape are gone, that’s not to say the county has buried its industrial heritage in the same careful manner – in fact, it’s still very proud of it, and rightly so. Because without the coal riven from its mines by men who sweated, suffered and, in some instances, even died to produce it, the Industrial Revolution could never have taken place.

 

So, aptly, memories of the past are still held onto and treasured not only by individuals, but also by organisations such as Beamish. Beamish is an open air, working museum that provides fascinating insights into the daily life and employment of North Easteners during the early 1800s and 1900s, and one, it must be said, that gets bigger and better each year.

 

But a former pit village in East Durham called Horden is also doing its bit to honour its heritage. The Parish Council has just bought an iconic sculpture of a nine-foot tall miner for the princely sum of £19,000 in a bid to try and spark some interest in the place and promote regeneration – something that should also be helped by the tourism generated by Durham Heritage Coast Partnership’s attempts to conserve and enhance the nearby flora- and fauna-rich coastline.

 

Fittingly though the statue has been called “Marra”, an old pitmatic word for a good mate or member of a crew of miners who worked together and watched each other’s backs. Pitmatic, meanwhile, for those not in the know, is a local dialect that was used extensively in mining communities across Northumberland and Durham.

 

It’s based on the ancient, traditional language of the countryside, which the men were still using when they migrated to the pits to work in the 17th and 18th centuries, simply adapting it to their new requirements.

 

So this language of theirs was, and is, special in that it had retained lots of words from the Old English of the Anglo-Saxons and the Old Norse of the Vikings – Durham, belonging as it did to the ancient Kingdom of Northumbria, had been part of the Danelaw.

 

Although pitmatic was predominantly a male dialect, the language of a working pitman in fact, lots of the more general-purpose rather than work-specific words were also employed by the rest of the community, and were certainly still in common parlance when I was a kid – people were still eating their “bait” (packed lunch), for instance, poking “spelks” (splinters) out of their fingers with a needle, and walking through fields of “claggy auld clarts” (sticky old mud) after the rain.

 

Marras

 

As the old miners continue to die off though, pitmatic’s usage is now, sadly, almost as defunct as the pits that shaped it, and you hear its descriptive, onomatopoeic phrases employed less and less these days, particularly by the young ones.

Banner at Miner's Gala, Durham
Banner at Miner’s Gala, Durham

But anyway to get back to the point, the Marra in question is particularly emotive because he has his heart ripped out. A telling metaphor to illustrate what the demise of mining meant to the North East, it is particularly poignant in a place like Horden.

 

Horden Colliery was one of the biggest mines in the country, employing 4,000 men at its peak before being closed in 1987, two years after the miners’ strike.

 

The statue itself, meanwhile, which was unveiled in Horden Welfare Park on Saturday 21 November, was the brainchild of local artist, Ray Lonsdale.

 

The idea behind the piece was apparently a news story revealing that a statue of former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, whose regime was responsible for wiping out the British coal industry without putting any plans in place to support the communities dependent on it, was to be erected in Westminster to celebrate the good she had done for the country. But as Lonsdale drily put it: “That’s not the way it’s seen up here.”

 

Thankfully though, after years of neglect from Westminster by parties of all political stripes, Durham now seems to have got itself a champion in the shape of Jonathan Garnier Ruffer. On paper Ruffer, a financier who speaks the Queen’s English and made his millions in London, may not be an obvious advocate. But he was actually born in the North East in a village near Middlesbrough on Teesside and so was aware of the issues.

 

A committed evangelical Christian and member of the Church of England, he credits English merchant and philanthropist William Rathbone VI as the inspiration for his good deeds. But of what do such good deeds consist?

 

They’re essentially about transforming Bishop Auckland, a pleasant, if somewhat deprived post-industrial market town 12 miles south west of Durham City, a Unesco World Heritage site, into a huge historical theme park to pull in tourists and help regenerate the area, not least by creating lots of jobs. And the latter is vital in a region where unemployment stubbornly remains the highest in the country at 8.1% compared to the UK national average of 5.6%.

 

Historical theme park

 

Although in 2012 Ruffer had never even visited Bishop Auckland before, he’d heard that the Church Commissioners, who manage the Anglican Church’s finances, were selling a dozen 17th century paintings by Spanish artist Francisco Zubaran. They hung in Auckland Castle, private home of successive Bishops of Durham for 900 years, who incidentally from 1071 until 1836 were unique in England for being Prince Bishops – and the county is still known as the “Land of the Prince Bishops” to this day.

Auckland Castle, Bishop Auckland
Auckland Castle, Bishop Auckland

Given the strategic position of the county, which acted as a buffer between England and its enemies in Scotland, the Prince Bishops were awarded secular powers that enabled them to raise their own armies, mint their own coins and levy their own taxes – as long as they stayed loyal to the king and diligently performed their role in protecting the country’s northern frontier, that is.

 

Anyway, Ruffer felt that the Zubaran paintings should stay in the region and so he bought them, and the castle they were hung in, for the tidy sum of £15 million. But he didn’t stop there.

 

He’s now not only restored the castle and opened it up to the public as a tourist attraction, but also purchased the site of the little-known but extremely important Roman fort of Vinovia or Binchester nearby, dubbed “The Pompeii of the North”. The aim is to make it into a major heritage destination too.

 

But Ruffer’s piece de resistance is his decision to set up a £100 million historical leisure park on a 115-acre site in the shadow of Auckland Castle. Also in the offing is a Night Show, inspired by the internationally renowned one at Puy du Fou in the Vendee region of the Loire in western France.

 

The open air light show, which will operate as a not-for-profit venture, will dramatise 2,000 years of North Eastern history and, with a cast of 600 volunteers, will apparently resemble the London 2012 Olympic opening ceremony – except it’ll be about Viking invasions, Roman gladiators and the like.

 

As of spring 2016, the objective is to put on 30 Night Shows per year and to pull in 6,000 visitors with each one. While the complementary historical theme park itself won’t actually open until 2020, the Show is expected to create 10 full-time jobs initially, rising to 300 by 2024.

 

But plans also include the creation of an Eleven Arches Academy – Eleven Arches being the name of the former golf course, which is crossed by the Newton Cap railway viaduct complete with its eponymous number of archways – which will train 300 young volunteers annually between the ages of eight and 25 in the key skills required to put on the spectacular. These include sound, lighting, pyrotechnics and set construction.

 

So with all of this great work in mind, all I can say is that Ruffer seems to me to be a git canny gadge who’s done hees bit sel’ and hees new hyem proud. Champion.

 

 

 

 

 

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The English wine industry: A great British success story

Traditionally the UK has been a proud nation of beer drinkers – and popping down the pub for a pint has been a characteristically British pastime since time immemorial.

But times are changing, it seems. A poll published earlier this year by the Wine and Spirit Trade Association (WSTA) revealed that wine has now become the tipple of choice for three out of five of us.

This equates to a huge 30 million or so regular topers drinking on average 10 litres of Pinot Grigio, Merlot and Sauvignon Blanc each as their top three snifters.

As a result of this new-found enthusiasm for all things grape-y rather than grain-y, the entire sector is now worth a huge £17.3 billion. It supports 270,000 jobs and contributes a significant £8.6 billion in taxes to the Chancellor’s coffers.

Even more amazingly though, the UK also boasts an unexpected 572 commercial vineyards, which are found mostly in England, although there are also 22 in Wales and four in Scotland too. They produced 6.3 million bottles in 2014, an increase of 42% in volume terms over the year before, according to professional body, the English Wine Producers.

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Although such figures pale into insignificance behind France’s seven to eight billion bottles, the market is still only a young one. But it’s growing fast. And this growth is at least partially due to fact that the amount of land given over to vineyards has doubled in the last seven years, now standing in excess of 4,900 acres (2,000 hectares).

The shift has come about as a result of increasing numbers of farmers turning their land over from arable crops to vines – despite the hefty three to five years it takes for them to mature enough to produce wine grapes, explains Charles Hardcastle, owner of Joseph Barnes Wines, a lovely boutique wine shop in Saffron Walden.

And the reason is simple – despite the long lead-time, as and when the crop arrives, it tends to be much more profitable than traditional alternatives. According to the Wine Investment Fund (WIF), which invests in fine wines from Bordeaux, it is also a gift that keeps on giving, especially in bad times.

WIF believes that, as a commodity with similar characteristics to gold, fine wine tends to benefit from uncertain economic conditions such as those that we have at the moment.

Growing industry

But while gold is currently losing its lustre as an investment ‘safe haven’, “wine’s intrinsic value and inherently diminishing supply dynamic should mean that it retains its appeal in unstable market conditions”. Apparently.

Anyway, other reasons for the rapid growth of the English wine industry in particular, says Charles, include lots of new investment in cellar technology, machinery and, importantly, temperature control.

But it also helps that the UK has got warmer over the last few years due to climate change. “English wine-making is growing rapidly as the country gets warmer and we’re now seeing grapes that you wouldn’t have grown 10 years ago,” he explains.

Chardonnay and Pinot Noir have, in fact, now become the most popular national choice of varietal, not least because they cope well with our still relatively cool climate. And they also happen to love the chalky soils of Sussex, Kent and much of Essex just as much as those of France’s Burgundy and the Languedoc.

But it is sparkling wine that has been the UK’s true success story. Although it still accounts for only 1.5% of domestic purchases, producers won an impressive 14 gold medals in the International Wine Challenge this year compared to just five last year.

As a result, at least two thirds of UK production is now given over to it due to the higher margins that it generates, with volumes having grown by a massive 150% over the last five years.

The only small fly in the ointment is that English wines are still quite expensive for what they are. Charles estimates that you’d probably pay £9 to £10 for an English wine that would cost you maybe £6 or £7 for an equivalent French one – which, incidentally, is still the UK’s favourite wine producing country behind only Australia, but ahead of Italy (data from researchers, the IWSR).

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But that hasn’t stopped high street chains such as Marks & Spencer and Waitrose getting in on the act, with the latter reporting a 95% increase in 2014 sales over the previous year. In fact, Waitrose now offers more than 100 varieties of wine from both England and Wales.

Success story

But as well as the supermarkets’ support – something that Charles points out has been directly responsible for our new-found love of wine no matter what its origins – another thing that’s helped the British industry to blossom is the fact that English food has started to become trendy again.

And of course chefs are often keen to offer local wine in order to complement their local fare – something that has resulted in it appearing on the menus of restaurants owned by such celebrity greats as Gordon Ramsey, Heston Blumenthal and even home-grown North Essex boy, Jamie Oliver.

Anyway, the reason that I started looking into all of this in the first place was the fact that my Beloved and I took ourselves off to an English wine festival last weekend, at least partially to see how it compared with the fabulous three-day event held each year in Stellenbosch where we lived for nearly a year while in South Africa.

Although not quite on the same scale, it was held at the New Hall Vineyards, which is one of the oldest and largest in the country. Set up in 1969 in the small Essex village of Purleigh near Chelmsford, it comprises 100 acres of vines.

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And my favourite tipple there had to be the Huxelrebe, which is a German grape, tasting – to my uncultured palate anyway – not dissimilar to a nice, crisp Pinot Grigio.

The worst, on the other hand, was the Baron’s Red. But, I’m reliably informed by Charles, the climate still has a bit more changing to do before it’ll warm enough to make the most of red varietals really.

Anyway, one little money-making venture that I’d not come across before, despite having been a regular visitor to Stellenbosch’s wine farms when we were there, was the idea of an “own you own vineyard” scheme.

What New Hall proposes is that for the tidy sum of £350, you can rent yourself a vine row for a year, or two years for £650. They’ll look after it for you as part of the price, and then subsequently process your grapes at a cost of £1.98 per resultant bottle of wine, or £7.73 if it’s sparkling.

So it’s nothing if not entrepreneurial. Which is presumably why the English wine industry – despite the cynics – is rapidly starting to become one of the UK’s big commercial success stories.